18 Shiji 81 《史記》-廉頗藺相如列傳

《廉頗藺相如列傳》

1. 廉頗者,趙之良將也。趙惠文王十六年,廉頗為趙將伐齊,大破之,取陽晉,拜為上卿,以勇氣聞於諸侯。 藺相如者,趙人也,為趙宦者令繆賢舍人.


1. 廉颇者,赵之良将也。赵惠文王十六年,廉颇为赵将伐齐,大破之,取阳晋,拜为上卿,以勇气闻于诸侯。 蔺相如者,赵人也,为赵宦者令缪贤舍人。

(81.1)

廉頗 Lián Pō (name of a person)
Zhào (name of a state)
liáng good
jiàng general
惠文王 huì wén wáng King Hui Wen of Zhao (r. from BCE 299 to 266 )
nián year
to defeat, to destroy
陽晉 yáng jìn (name of a place)
bài to ceremoniously appoint
上卿 shàng qīng high minister
勇氣 (气) yǒng qì bravery, brave spirit
聞(闻) wén to hear of, to know by reputation
藺相如 Lìn Xiàngrú
huàn eunuch
宦者令 huàn zhě lìng Head of the Eunuchs
繆賢 Miào Xián
諸侯 zhū  hóu the feudal lords

2.  趙惠文王時,得楚和氏璧。秦昭王聞之,使人遺趙王書,願以十五城請易璧。趙王與大將軍廉頗諸大臣謀: 欲予秦,秦城恐不可得,徒見欺;欲勿予,即患秦兵之來。計未定,求人可使報秦者,未得。宦者令繆賢曰:“臣舍人藺相如可使。” 王問:“何以知之?” 對曰: “臣嘗有罪,竊計欲亡走燕,臣舍人相如止臣,曰:‘君何以知燕王?’ 臣語曰:‘臣嘗從大王與燕王會境上,燕王私握臣手,曰 “願結友”。以此知之,故欲 往。’ 相如謂臣曰:‘夫趙彊而燕弱,而君幸於趙王,故燕王欲結於君。今君乃亡趙走燕,燕畏趙,其勢必不敢留君,而束君歸趙矣。君不如肉袒伏斧質請罪,則幸 得脫矣。’ 臣從其計,大王亦幸赦臣。臣竊以為其人勇士,有智謀,宜可使。” 於是王召見,問藺相如曰:“秦王以十五城請易寡人之璧,可予不?” 相如曰:“秦 彊而趙弱,不可不許。” 王曰:“取吾璧,不予我城,柰何?” 相如曰:“秦以城求璧而趙不許,曲在趙。趙予璧而秦不予趙城,曲在秦。均之二策,寧許以負秦 曲。”王曰:“誰可使者?” 相如曰:“王必無人,臣願奉璧往使。城入趙而璧留秦;城不入,臣請完璧歸趙。” 趙王於是遂遣相如奉璧西入秦。

2. 赵惠文王时,得楚和氏璧。秦昭王闻之,使人遗赵王书,愿以十五城请易璧。赵王与大将军廉颇诸大臣谋: 欲予秦,秦城恐不可得,徒见欺;欲勿予,即患秦兵之来。计未定,求人可使报秦者,未得。宦者令缪贤曰:“臣舍人蔺相如可使。” 王问:“何以知之?” 对曰: “臣尝有罪,窃计欲亡走燕,臣舍人相如止臣,曰:‘君何以知燕王?’ 臣语曰:‘臣尝从大王与燕王会境上,燕王私握臣手,曰 “愿结友”。以此知之,故欲 往。’  相如谓臣曰:‘夫赵强而燕弱,而君幸于赵王,故燕王欲结于君。今君乃亡赵走燕,燕畏赵,其势必不敢留君,而束君归赵矣。君不如肉袒伏斧质请罪,则幸 得脱矣。’  臣从其计,大王亦幸赦臣。臣窃以为其人勇士,有智谋,宜可使。”  于是王召见,问蔺相如曰:“秦王以十五城请易寡人之璧,可予不?”  相如曰:“秦 强而赵弱,不可不许。”  王曰:“取吾璧,不予我城,柰何?”  相如曰:“秦以城求璧而赵不许,曲在赵。赵予璧而秦不予赵城,曲在秦。均之二策,宁许以负秦 曲。”王曰:“谁可使者?”  相如曰:“王必无人,臣愿奉璧往使。城入赵而璧留秦;城不入,臣请完璧归赵。”  赵王于是遂遣相如奉璧西入秦。

(81.2)

和氏 Hé Shì Master He (discoverer of the famous jade)
jade disk
使 shǐ to send (someone) on a mission / To serve as a messenger
wèi to present [c.f. yí, to lose]
shū letter
qǐng to beg
to exchange
大將軍 dà jiāng jūn supreme commander
大臣 dà chén senior minister
to give
to cheat
don’t; not
卽 (即) then [equivalent of  則]
dìng to decide
報 (报) bào to reply, to respond, to repay
何以 hé  yǐ how?
嘗 (尝) cháng once (in the past)
qiè I (humble); personally, private
to plan
to tell; to speak
zòng cóng to attend on [c.f. cóng: to follow]
huì to meet (by arrangement)
jìng border, frontier
secret; secretly
to grasp, to squeeze
jié to join, to tie
yǒu friend
jiāo intercourse
qiáng strong [alternative form of 強]
ruò weak
xìng to favor
nǎi however
shì circumstances
其勢 qí  shì under these circumstances
liú to keep
shù to bind
不如 bù  rú it is better to
肉袒 ròu  tǎn with upper body stripped bare
伏斧質 fú  fǔ  zhì to submit to executioner’s axe
請罪 qǐng  zuì to beg forgiveness for crime
xìng with luck
tuō to get off
shè to pardon
cóng to follow, to carry out
also, indeed [emphatic usage]
zhì wisdom, intelligence
(謀) 谋 móu resourcefulness
suitable
fǒu or not [u.f. 否]
(許) 许 to agree, to permit
奈何 nài  hé what to do about it? [柰nài is alt. form of 奈]
wrongdoing; to blame
jūn to weigh
zhī these; this; it
plan
寧 (宁) nìng rather
(負) 负 to bear; to cause to bear
definitely,
fèng to take up
wán complete; intact
(歸) 归 guī to restore
qiǎn to send

 

3.  秦王坐章臺見相如,相如奉璧奏秦王。秦王大喜,傳以示美人及左右,左右皆呼萬歲。相如視秦王無意償趙 城,乃前曰:“璧有瑕,請指示王。”王授璧,相如因持璧卻立,倚柱,怒髪上衝冠,謂秦王曰:“大王欲得璧,使人發書至趙王,趙王悉召群臣議,皆曰 ‘秦貪, 負其彊,以空言求璧,償城恐不可得’。議不欲予秦璧。臣以為布衣之交尚不相欺,況大國乎!且以一璧之故逆彊秦之驩,不可。於是趙王乃齋戒五日,使臣奉璧, 拜送書於庭。何者? 嚴大國之威以修敬也。今臣至,大王見臣列觀,禮節甚倨;得璧,傳之美人,以戲弄臣。臣觀大王無意償趙王城邑,故臣復取璧。大王必欲急 臣,臣頭今與璧俱碎於柱矣!” 相如持其璧睨柱,欲以擊柱。秦王恐其破璧,乃辭謝固請,召有司案圖,指從此以往十五都予趙。相如度秦王特以詐詳為予趙城,實 不可得,乃謂秦王曰:“和氏璧,天下所共傳寶也,趙王恐,不敢不獻。趙王送璧時,齋戒五日,今大王亦宜齋戒五日,設九賓於廷,臣乃敢上璧。”秦王度之,終 不可彊奪,遂許齋五日,舍相如廣成傳。相如度秦王雖齋,決負約不償城,乃使其從者衣褐,懷其璧,從徑道亡,歸璧于趙。

3.秦王坐章台见相如,相如奉璧奏秦王。秦王大喜,传以示美人及左右,左右皆呼万岁。相如视秦王无意偿赵 城,乃前曰:“璧有瑕,请指示王。”王授璧,相如因持璧却立,倚柱,怒髪上冲冠,谓秦王曰:“大王欲得璧,使人发书至赵王,赵王悉召群臣议,皆曰 ‘秦贪, 负其强,以空言求璧,偿城恐不可得’。议不欲予秦璧。臣以为布衣之交尚不相欺,况大国乎!且以一璧之故逆强秦之欢,不可。于是赵王乃斋戒五日,使臣奉璧, 拜送书于庭。何者? 严大国之威以修敬也。今臣至,大王见臣列观,礼节甚倨;得璧,传之美人,以戏弄臣。臣观大王无意偿赵王城邑,故臣复取璧。大王必欲急 臣,臣头今与璧俱碎于柱矣!”  相如持其璧睨柱,欲以击柱。秦王恐其破璧,乃辞谢固请,召有司案图,指从此以往十五都予赵。相如度秦王特以诈详为予赵城,实 不可得,乃谓秦王曰:“和氏璧,天下所共传宝也,赵王恐,不敢不献。赵王送璧时,斋戒五日,今大王亦宜斋戒五日,设九宾于廷,臣乃敢上璧。”秦王度之,终 不可强夺,遂许斋五日,舍相如广成传。相如度秦王虽斋,决负约不偿城,乃使其从者衣褐,怀其璧,从径道亡,归璧于赵。

(81.3)

章臺 Zhāng  Tái (name of pleasure palace)
zòu to offer to a superior
chuán to pass on
shì to show
měi beautiful
美人 měi  rén (title of royal concubine)
and [between nouns]
to shout
wàn ten thousand
suì year of life; year
shì to see
intention
償 (偿) cháng to give something in exchange; to indemnify
xiá flaw
shòu to hand
què to withdraw
to stand, to stop
to lean against
zhù pillar
hair
chōng to strike against
發書 fā shū to send a letter
all
qún [noun prefix indicating number]
to deliberate
tān greedy
to rely on
kōng empty
yán words
以為 yǐ wéi to take to be, to consider
cloth
布衣 bù  yī commonder
kuàng how much the less (or more)
guó state
qiě moreover; to be about to; and
huān goodwill, friendship [alt. form of 歡]
zhāi to fast
jiè to observe prohibitions
bài to bow
sòng to offer; to see off
tíng court
yán to solemnify
wēi dignity, majesty
xiū to cultivate, to enhance
jìng respect
guàn palace
禮節 lǐ jié manners, ceremonial forms
shèn very; extreme
overbearing
to play
戲弄 xì nòng to make fun of
城邑 chéng yì towns
to press
suì to smash to bits
to look sideways at
to break
辭謝 cí xiè to apologize
earnestly
有司 yǒu sī the responsible officers
àn desk; to consult
map
以往 yǐ wǎng (from)…onward
city
only
zhà to cheat
zhà false words
詳為 yáng wéi to pretend  [c.f. yáng with xiáng details.  yáng, to pretend, is also written 佯]
shí really
gòng together, commonly
chuán
bǎo jewel, treasure
九賓 jiǔ bīn
shàng to offer to a superior
qiáng by force
shè to lodge
廣成 Guǎng chéng (name of a hostel)
傳舍 chuán shè (hostel for officials)
jué definitely
to repudiate
yuē agreement
coarse clothing
徑道 jìng dào bypath

4. 秦王齋五日後,乃設九賓禮於廷,引趙使者藺相如。相如至,謂秦王曰:“秦自繆公以來二十餘君,未嘗有 堅明約束者也。臣誠恐見欺於王而負趙,故令人持璧歸,閒至趙矣。且秦彊而趙弱,大王遣一介之使至趙,趙立奉璧來。今以秦之彊而先割十五都予趙,趙豈敢留璧而得罪於大王乎?臣知欺大王之罪當誅,臣請就湯鑊,唯大王與群臣孰計議之。” 秦王與群臣相視而嘻。左右或欲引相如去,秦王因曰:“今殺相如,終不能得璧也,而絕秦趙之驩,不如因而厚遇之,使歸趙,趙王豈以一璧之故欺秦邪!” 卒廷見相如,畢禮而歸之。

4.   秦王斋五日后,乃设九宾礼于廷,引赵使者蔺相如。相如至,谓秦王曰:“秦自缪公以来二十余君,未尝有 坚明约束者也。臣诚恐见欺于王而负赵,故令人持璧归,间至赵矣。且秦强而赵弱,大王遣一介之使至赵,赵立奉璧来。今以秦之强而先割十五都予赵,赵岂敢留璧而得罪于大王乎?臣知欺大王之罪当诛,臣请就汤镬,唯大王与群臣孰计议之。”  秦王与群臣相视而嘻。左右或欲引相如去,秦王因曰:“今杀相如,终不能得璧也,而绝秦赵之欢,不如因而厚遇之,使归赵,赵王岂以一璧之故欺秦邪!”  卒廷见相如,毕礼而归之。

(81.4)

hòu after
shè to set up
yǐn to bring up
繆公 Mù  Gōng Duke Mu of Qin (r. BCE 659-621)
以來 yǐ lái (from)…up to the present
未嘗 wèi cháng never in the past, not once
jiān firm
堅明 jiān míng to observe strictly
約束 yuē shù covenant
to let down, to betray
間(间) jiàn secretly [c.f. xian, idle]
一介 yī jiè single
immediately
以…而
to cut off
得罪於 dé zuì yú to offend
dāng to deserve
jiù to go to
tāng boiling water
huò pot, cauldron
wéi (I) suggest, (I) wish
shú maturely [u.f. 熱]
計議 jì yì to deliberate
to grimace (in annoyance or surprise)
jué to sever
yīn to use (the occasion)
hòu generously
to treat
to finish, to complete

5.  相如既歸,趙王以為賢大夫使不辱於諸侯,拜相如為上大夫。秦亦不以城予趙,趙亦終不予秦璧。

5.  相如既归,赵王以为贤大夫使不辱于诸侯,拜相如为上大夫。秦亦不以城予赵,赵亦终不予秦璧。

(81.5)

after [conjunction]; already
to disgrace, to shame
諸侯 zhū hóu the feudal lords
上大夫 shàng dà fū high officer

6. 其後秦伐趙,拔石城。明年,復攻趙,殺二萬人。

6. 其后秦伐赵,拔石城。明年,复攻赵,杀二万人。

(81.6)

to take by force
石城 shíchéng (name of a place)
míng next
明年 míng nián the following year

 

7.  秦王使使者告趙王,欲與王為好會於西河外澠池。趙王畏秦,欲毋行。廉頗、藺相如計曰:“王不行,示趙 弱且怯也。” 趙王遂行,相如從。廉頗送至境,與王訣曰:“王行,度道里會遇之禮畢,還,不過三十日。三十日不還,則請立太子為王。以絕秦望。” 王許之,遂 與秦王會澠池。秦王飲酒酣,曰:“寡人竊聞趙王好音,請奏瑟。” 趙王鼓瑟。秦御史前書曰 “某年月日,秦王與趙王會飲,令趙王鼓瑟”。藺相如前曰:“趙王竊 聞秦王善為秦聲,請奏盆缻秦王,以相娛樂。”秦王怒,不許。於是相如前進缻,因跪請秦王。秦王不肯擊缻。相如曰:“五步之內,相如請得以頸血濺大王矣!” 左右欲刃相如,相如張目叱之,左右皆靡。於是秦王不懌,為一擊缻。相如顧召趙御史書曰 “某年月日,秦王為趙王擊缻”。 秦之群臣曰: “請以趙十五城為秦王 壽”。 藺相如亦曰:“請以秦之咸陽為趙王壽。” 秦王竟酒,終不能加勝於趙。趙亦盛設兵以待秦,秦不敢動。

7. 秦王使使者告赵王,欲与王为好会于西河外渑池。赵王畏秦,欲毋行。廉颇、蔺相如计曰:“王不行,示赵 弱且怯也。” 赵王遂行,相如从。廉颇送至境,与王诀曰:“王行,度道里会遇之礼毕,还,不过三十日。三十日不还,则请立太子为王。以绝秦望。”  王许之,遂 与秦王会渑池。秦王饮酒酣,曰:“寡人窃闻赵王好音,请奏瑟。”  赵王鼓瑟。秦御史前书曰  “某年月日,秦王与赵王会饮,令赵王鼓瑟”。蔺相如前曰:“赵王窃 闻秦王善为秦声,请奏盆缻秦王,以相娱乐。”秦王怒,不许。于是相如前进缻,因跪请秦王。秦王不肯击缻。相如曰:“五步之内,相如请得以颈血溅大王矣!”  左右欲刃相如,相如张目叱之,左右皆靡。于是秦王不怿,为一击缻。相如顾召赵御史书曰  “某年月日,秦王为赵王击缻”。  秦之群臣曰: “请以赵十五城为秦王 寿”。  蔺相如亦曰:“请以秦之咸阳为赵王寿。”  秦王竟酒,终不能加胜于赵。赵亦盛设兵以待秦,秦不敢动。

(81.7)

使 shì emissary [c.f. shǐ]
為好 wéi hào to establish friendly relations
西河 Xī  Hé West River, i.e. Yellow River
wài outside, beyond
澠池 Miǎn Chí (name of a place)
don’t;  not
qiě and [connecting adjectives]
qiè cowardly
jué to say farewell
道里 dào lǐ journey
會遇 huì yù to meet
guò to exceed
to set up, to establish
太子 tài zǐ Crown Prince
wàng hopes, ambitions
hān flushed with wine
hào to like, to be fond of, good
yīn music
zòu to play
(ancient stringed instrument)
to strum, to play
御史 yù shǐ official recorder
shū to write
mǒu such-and-such (omitting precise details)
yuè month
shàn to be good at; good
shēng tunes
zòu (read as 奉 fèng)
pén basin, pot
fǒu earthenware, wine pot
娛樂 yú lè divert, give pleasure
jìn to present
guì to kneel
kěn willing
to strike, to play
pace
nèi inside
to be able
jiàn to splash
rèn to cut down
zhāng (to open wide)
eyes
張目 zhāng mù to glare
chì to berate; to roar at
to fall back
pleased
once; one; the first
shòu birthday gift; longevity
咸陽 Xián Yang (Qin Capital)
jìng to finish
jiā to gain
shèng victory
shèng plentiful

 

8.  既罷歸國,以相如功大,拜為上卿,位在廉頗之右。廉頗曰:“我為趙將,有攻城野戰之大功,而藺相如徒以口舌為勞,而位居我上,且相如素賤人,吾羞,不忍為 之下。” 宣言曰:“我見相如,必辱之。” 相如聞,不肯與會。相如每朝時,常稱病,不欲與廉頗爭列。已而相如出,望見廉頗,相如引車避匿。於是舍人相與諫 曰:“臣所以去親戚而事君者,徒慕君之高義也。今君與廉頗同列,廉君宣惡言而君畏匿之,恐懼殊甚,且庸人尚羞之,況於將相乎!臣等不肖,請辭去。” 藺相如固止之,曰:“公之視廉將軍孰與秦王?” 曰:“不若也。” 相如曰:“夫以秦王之威,而相如廷叱之,辱其群臣,相如雖駑,獨畏廉將軍哉? 顧吾念之,彊秦之所 以不敢加兵於趙者,徒以吾兩人在也。今兩虎共鬬 ,其勢不俱生。吾所以為此者,以先國家之急而後私讎也。” 廉頗聞之,肉袒負荊,因賓客至藺相如門謝罪。曰: “鄙賤之人,不知將軍寬之至此也。” 卒相與驩,為刎頸之交。

8. 既罢归国,以相如功大,拜为上卿,位在廉颇之右。廉颇曰:“我为赵将,有攻城野战之大功,而蔺相如徒以口舌为劳,而位居我上,且相如素贱人,吾羞,不忍为 之下。” 宣言曰:“我见相如,必辱之。”  相如闻,不肯与会。相如每朝时,常称病,不欲与廉颇争列。已而相如出,望见廉颇,相如引车避匿。于是舍人相与谏 曰:“臣所以去亲戚而事君者,徒慕君之高义也。今君与廉颇同列,廉君宣恶言而君畏匿之,恐惧殊甚,且庸人尚羞之,况于将相乎!臣等不肖,请辞去。”  蔺相如固止之,曰:“公之视廉将军孰与秦王?”  曰:“不若也。”  相如曰:“夫以秦王之威,而相如廷叱之,辱其群臣,相如虽驽,独畏廉将军哉? 顾吾念之,强秦之所 以不敢加兵于赵者,徒以吾两人在也。今两虎共斗 ,其势不俱生。吾所以为此者,以先国家之急而后私仇也。”  廉颇闻之,肉袒负荆,因宾客至蔺相如门谢罪。曰: “鄙贱之人,不知将军宽之至此也。”  卒相与欢,为刎颈之交。

(81.8)

to finish
gōng merit
wèi position
countryside
zhàn to fight
kǒu mouth
shé tongue
láo achievement; labor
jiàn base, low
rěn to bear
xuān to announce; to put out
měi each; each time
cháo to go to court
cháng regularly, always
chēng to claim, to declare
bìng sick
已而 yǐ ér before long
yǐn to withdraw
to avoid
親戚 qīn qi relatives
shì to serve; affairs
to admire
è evil [c.f. wù: to hate]
懼(惧) to fear
shū very, really; especially
殊甚 shū shèn extreme
yōng common, ordinary
shàng even
不肖 bù xiào unworthy, unfilial;lit: “unlike [one’s forefathers]
to take leave of
孰與 shú yǔ how does (one) compare with?
不若 bù ruò not as good as
weak, feeble
how? (rhetorical) alone
but, however
niàn to consider, to be concerned about
because, on account of
jiā to apply
鬬 (斗) dòu to fight
urgent; crisis
private
讎 (仇) chóu vengeance [c.f. 仇 chóu]
負荊 fù jīng to bear a thornwood rod on one’s back (a symbol of contrition)
yīn to go through (by the introduction of)
xiè to apologize
low, base
kuān magnanimous
wěn to cut (throat)

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Introduction to Classical Chinese by Patrick Hanan; David Lattimore; Judith Zeitlin; Margaret Baptist Wan; Anthony George; Xiaofei Tian; Regina Llamas; Hu Hsiao-chen; Liu Lening; Paul Rouzer; Shang Wei; Andrew Schonebaum; and Kong Mei is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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