19 Shiji 77 -《史記》-魏公子列傳

魏公子列傳

1.  魏公子無忌者,魏昭王子少子而魏安釐王異母弟也。昭王薨,安釐王即位,封公子為信陵君。是時范睢亡魏 相秦,以怨魏齊故,秦兵圍大梁,破魏華陽下軍,走芒卯。魏王及公子患之。


1. 魏公子无忌者,魏昭王子少子而魏安厘王异母弟也。昭王薨,安厘王即位,封公子为信陵君。是时范睢亡魏 相秦,以怨魏齐故,秦兵围大梁,破魏华阳下军,走芒卯。魏王及公子患之。

(77.1)

魏無忌 Wèi Wújì youngest son of King Zhao and step-brother of King An Xi
昭王 Zhāo Wáng King Zhao (r. 296-277 BCE)
shào youngest
安釐王 Ān  Xǐ  Wáng King An Xi (r. 277-243 BCE)
different
hōng to die (of feudal lords)
即位 jí wèi to ascend the throne
fēng to enfeoff
信陵君 Xìn Líng Jūn Lord of Xin Ling (in Wei)
范睢 Fàn  Jǖ (see biography in Shiji 79)
xiàng to serve as minister
yuàn to hold a grudge against, to hate
魏齊 Wèi  Qí (minister of Wei. He suspected Fan Ju of  spying for Qi, and tortured him.  Fan escaped to Qin).
wéi to besiege
大梁 Dà Liáng (Capital of Wei.  On site of modern Kaifeng.  The campaign was in 275 BCE.  See Shiji 72 for details).
華陽 Huá  Yáng name of a place
xià encamped
zǒu to run, to put to flight
芒卯 Máng Mǎo (commander of the Wei forces)
2. 公子為人仁而下士,士無賢不肖皆謙而禮交之,不敢以其富貴驕士。 士以此方數千里争往歸之,致食客三千人。當是時,諸侯以公子賢,多客,不敢加兵謀魏十餘年。

2. 公子为人仁而下士,士无贤不肖皆谦而礼交之,不敢以其富贵骄士。 士以此方数千里争往归之,致食客三千人。当是时,诸侯以公子贤,多客,不敢加兵谋魏十余年。

(77.2)

為人 wéi  rén as a man, in behavior
xià to humble oneself before
shì the shi
without (distinguishing between); no matter whether
qiān modest, humble
jiāo to deal with (people)
wealthy
guì noble
jiāo proud; to treat arrogantly
fāng square
guī to give allegiance to
zhì to gather
食客 shí kè retainer
móu to scheme against

 

3. 公子與魏王博,而北境傳舉烽,言 “趙寇至,且入界”。 魏王釋博,欲召大臣謀。公子止王曰:“趙王田獵 耳,非為寇也。” 復博如故。王恐,心不在博。居頃,復從北方來傳言曰:“趙王獵耳,非為寇也。” 魏王大驚,曰:“公子何以知之?” 公子曰:“臣之客有能深 得趙王陰事者,趙王所為,客輒以報臣,臣以此知之。” 是後魏王畏公子之賢能,不敢任公子以國政。

3. 公子与魏王博,而北境传举烽,言 “赵寇至,且入界”。 魏王释博,欲召大臣谋。公子止王曰:“赵王田猎 耳,非为寇也。” 复博如故。王恐,心不在博。居顷,复从北方来传言曰:“赵王猎耳,非为寇也。” 魏王大惊,曰:“公子何以知之?” 公子曰:“臣之客有能深 得赵王阴事者,赵王所为,客辄以报臣,臣以此知之。” 是后魏王畏公子之贤能,不敢任公子以国政。

(77.3)

to play chess
běi north
chuán to send word
fēng beacon
kòu raider; enemy; to raid
jiè border, frontier
田獵 tián liè to hunt
previously
after (lapse of time)
qǐng short time
fāng direction
jīng to be surprised
néng ability
zhé invariably
zhèng administration

 

4. 魏有隱士曰侯嬴,年七十,家貧,為大梁夷門監者。公子聞之,往請,欲厚遺之。不肯受,曰:“臣脩身絜 行數十年,終不以監門困故而受公子財。” 公子於是乃置酒大會賓客。坐定,公子從車騎,虛左,自迎夷門侯生。侯生攝敝衣冠,直上載公子上坐,不讓,欲以觀公子。公子執轡愈恭。侯生又謂公子曰: “臣有客在市屠中,願枉車騎過之。” 公子引車入市,侯生下見其客朱亥,俾倪,故久立與其客語,微察公子。公子顏色愈 和。當是時,魏將相宗室賓客滿堂,待公子舉酒。市人皆觀公子執轡。從騎皆竊罵侯生。侯生視公子色終不變,乃謝客就車。至家,公子引侯生坐上坐,遍贊賓客, 賓客皆驚。酒酣,公子起,為壽侯生前。侯生因謂公子曰:“今日嬴之為公子亦足矣。嬴乃夷門抱關者也,而公子親枉車騎,自迎嬴於眾人廣坐之中,不宜有所過, 今公子故過之。 然嬴欲就公子之名,故久立公子車騎市中,過客以觀公子,公子愈恭。市人皆以嬴為小人,而以公子為長者能下士也。” 於是罷酒,侯生遂為上客。

4. 魏有隐士曰侯嬴,年七十,家贫,为大梁夷门监者。公子闻之,往请,欲厚遗之。不肯受,曰:“臣修身絜 行数十年,终不以监门困故而受公子财。”  公子于是乃置酒大会宾客。坐定,公子从车骑,虚左,自迎夷门侯生。侯生摄敝衣冠,直上载公子上坐,不让,欲以观公子。公子执辔愈恭。侯生又谓公子曰: “臣有客在市屠中,愿枉车骑过之。”  公子引车入市,侯生下见其客朱亥,俾倪,故久立与其客语,微察公子。公子颜色愈 和。当是时,魏将相宗室宾客满堂,待公子举酒。市人皆观公子执辔。从骑皆窃骂侯生。侯生视公子色终不变,乃谢客就车。至家,公子引侯生坐上坐,遍赞宾客, 宾客皆惊。酒酣,公子起,为寿侯生前。侯生因谓公子曰:“今日嬴之为公子亦足矣。嬴乃夷门抱关者也,而公子亲枉车骑,自迎嬴于众人广坐之中,不宜有所过, 今公子故过之。 然嬴欲就公子之名,故久立公子车骑市中,过客以观公子,公子愈恭。市人皆以嬴为小人,而以公子为长者能下士也。”  于是罢酒,侯生遂为上客。

(77.4)

yǐn hidden
隱士 yǐnshì (shi without office, in retirement; recluse)
侯嬴 Hóu Yíng an advisor to the Lord of Xinling 信陵君
pín poor
夷門 Yí Mén Yi Gate
jiān to supervise
qǐng to visit
wèi to make presents to
shòu to accept
xiū to cultivate (alt. form of修)
jié to cleanse (u.f. 潔 jié)
xíng conduct
kùn poor
cái riches
zhì to arrange
huì to assemble
zuò to sit
dìng settled
cóng to take along (as escort)
carriage (cf. Modern chē)
車騎 jū jì (escort of) horses and carriages
horseman (cf. qí  to ride)
empty; to leave empty
shēng Master
shè to straighten
tattered
zhí direct; directly
zài to take (seat)
ràng to demur, to decline, to yield
zhí to grasp, to hold
pèi reins
even more
gōng respectful
butcher
wǎng to cause to deviate, take you out of your way
guò to visit, to stop by
yǐn to lead, to direct
朱亥 Zhū Hài
俾倪 bì nì to look sideways at, to look arrogantly
deliberately
jiǔ for a long time
to speak
wēi covertly
chá to inspect
yán face
expression
 和 amiable
zōng (ancestor)
宗室 zōng shì royal house
滿 mǎn to fill, full
táng hall
舉酒 jǔ jiǔ to begin the banquet
從騎 zòng jì mounted escorts
to curse
xiè to take leave
zàn to praise (in introducing)
to arise
shòu toast
wéi to embarrass, to trouble
guān bolt of gate
抱關者 gatekeeper bào guān zhě
qīn in person, parents, relatives
zhòng numerous; multitude
guǎng broad, large
indeed
rán but
jiù to complete, to enhance
to cause to stop, to keep waiting
xiǎo small
小人 xiǎorén the small-minded man
長者 zhǎngzhě magnanimous man

 

5. 侯生謂公子曰:“臣所過屠者朱亥,此子賢者,世莫能知,故隱屠閒耳。” 公子往數請之,朱亥故不復謝, 公子怪之。

5. 侯生谓公子曰:“臣所过屠者朱亥,此子贤者,世莫能知,故隐屠间耳。” 公子往数请之,朱亥故不复谢, 公子怪之。

(77.5)

shì generation; world
shuò often (cf shù: number; many times)
閒(间) jiān among (cf. jiàn: secretly)
xiè to thank
guài strange; to consider remarkable

 

6. 魏安釐王二十年,秦昭王已破趙長平軍,又進兵圍邯鄲。公子姊為趙惠文王弟平原君夫人,數遺魏王及公子 書,請救於魏。魏王使將軍晉鄙將十萬眾救趙。秦王使使者告魏王曰:“吾攻趙旦暮且下,而諸侯敢救者,已拔趙,必移兵先擊之。” 魏王恐,使人止晉鄙,留軍壁鄴,名為救趙,實持兩端以觀望。平原君使者冠蓋相屬於魏,讓魏公子曰:“勝所以自附為婚姻者,以公子之高義,為能急人之困。今邯鄲旦暮降秦而魏救不至,安在公子能急人之困也! 且公子縱輕勝,棄之降秦,獨不憐公子姊邪?” 公子患之,數請魏王,及賓客辯士說王萬端。魏王畏秦,終不聽公子。公子自度終不能得之於王,計不獨生而令趙亡,乃請賓客,約車騎百餘乘,欲以客往赴秦軍,與趙俱死。

6. 魏安厘王二十年,秦昭王已破赵长平军,又进兵围邯郸。公子姊为赵惠文王弟平原君夫人,数遗魏王及公子 书,请救于魏。魏王使将军晋鄙将十万众救赵。秦王使使者告魏王曰:“吾攻赵旦暮且下,而诸侯敢救者,已拔赵,必移兵先击之。” 魏王恐,使人止晋鄙,留军壁 邺,名为救赵,实持两端以观望。平原君使者冠盖相属于魏,让魏公子曰:“胜所以自附为婚姻者,以公子之高义,为能急人之困。今邯郸旦暮降秦而魏救不至,安在公子能急人之困也! 且公子纵轻胜,弃之降秦,独不怜公子姊邪?”  公子患之,数请魏王,及宾客辩士说王万端。魏王畏秦,终不听公子。公子自度终不能得之于王,计不独生而令赵亡,乃请宾客,约车骑百余乘,欲以客往赴秦军,与赵俱死。

(77.6)

二十年 èr shí nián i.e. 257 BCE
to finish; after having
長平 Chángpíng (name of a place)
jìn to advance; to cause to advance
邯鄲 Hán Dān (capital of Zhao)
elder sister
平原君 Píng Yuán Jūn Lord of Ping Yuan (Zhao Sheng)
夫人 fū rén wife, lady
wèi to send
qǐng to plead for
jiù to rescue
將軍 jiāng jūn general
晉鄙 Jìn Bǐ a general in the state of Wei
jiàng to command; general
zhòng multitude
evening
旦暮 dàn mù at any moment
ér if
to move, to transfer
to encamp
(a city in Wei near Zhao border, in modern-day Hebei)
shí real; really; in reality
duān head; end
蓋(盖) gài canopy of a carriage
zhǔ to join
相屬 xiāng zhǔ in continuous succession
ràng to berate
Shèng (personal name of Lord of Ping Yuan)
to attach to
婚姻 hūn yīn marriage; relative by marriage
wèi because
to be concerned about
kùn difficulty, distress
xiáng to surrender
zòng even if
qīng to look down on
棄(弃) to abandon, to forsake
lián to pity
[interrogative particle] [alt. form of耶]
qǐng to appeal to
biàn to argue
辯士 biàn shì expert debater
duān reason; way
tīng to heed; to obey (cf. ting, to listen)
to decide on a play
yuē to assemble
shèng (measure for chariots, carriages, etc.)
(take as 與)
to rush to or against

 

7. 行過夷門,見侯生,具告所以欲死秦軍狀。辭決而行,侯生曰:“公子勉之矣,老臣不能從。” 公子行數里,心不快,曰:“吾所以待侯生者備矣,天下莫不聞,今吾且死而侯生曾無一言半辭送我,我豈有所失哉?” 復引車還,問侯生。侯生笑曰:“臣固知公子之還 也。” 曰:“公子喜士,名聞天下。今有難,無他端而欲赴秦軍,譬若以肉投餒虎,何功之有哉?尚安事客?然公子遇臣厚,公子往而臣不送,以是知公子恨之復返 也。” 公子再拜,因問。侯生乃屏人閒語,曰:“嬴聞晉鄙之兵符常在王臥內,而如姬最幸,出入王臥內,力能竊之。嬴聞如姬父為人所殺,如姬資之三年,自王以 下欲求報其父仇,莫能得。如姬為公子泣,公子使客斬其仇頭,敬進如姬。如姬之欲為公子死,無所辭,顧未有路耳。公子誠一開口請如姬,如姬必許諾,則得虎符奪晉鄙軍,北救趙而西卻秦,此五霸之伐也。” 公子從其計,請如姬。如姬果盜晉鄙兵符與公子。

7. 行过夷门,见侯生,具告所以欲死秦军状。辞决而行,侯生曰:“公子勉之矣,老臣不能从。”  公子行数里,心不快,曰:“吾所以待侯生者备矣,天下莫不闻,今吾且死而侯生曾无一言半辞送我,我岂有所失哉?”  复引车还,问侯生。侯生笑曰:“臣固知公子之还 也。”  曰:“公子喜士,名闻天下。今有难,无他端而欲赴秦军,譬若以肉投馁虎,何功之有哉?尚安事客?然公子遇臣厚,公子往而臣不送,以是知公子恨之复返 也。”  公子再拜,因问。侯生乃屏人间语,曰:“嬴闻晋鄙之兵符常在王卧内,而如姬最幸,出入王卧内,力能窃之。嬴闻如姬父为人所杀,如姬资之三年,自王以 下欲求报其父仇,莫能得。如姬为公子泣,公子使客斩其仇头,敬进如姬。如姬之欲为公子死,无所辞,顾未有路耳。公子诚一开口请如姬,如姬必许诺,则得虎符夺晋鄙军,北救赵而西却秦,此五霸之伐也。”  公子从其计,请如姬。如姬果盗晋鄙兵符与公子。

(77.7)

all, in detail
zhuàng situation, circumstances
jué to say farewell to (u.f . 訣)
miàn to do one’s best
dài to treat
kuài happy
bèi complete, thorough
céng actually (to speaker’s surprise)
words, phrase
sòng to see off; to say in parting
shī to make a mistake
all along
to like, to cherish
analogy
譬若 pì ruò it is as if
ròu meat
tóu to throw
něi to starve
shàng still; any more
shì to use, to need
hòu generous
hèn to resent, to regret
zhī may be read as ( 而 )
fǎn to return
zài a second time, twice
bǐng to send away
jiàn privately, secretly
tally
兵符 bīng fú general’s warrant (part is held by the general, part by the ruler, a change of orders must be accompanied by the ruler’s part)
臥內 wò nèi bed chamber
如姬 Rú Jī (the King of Wei’s concubine)
xìng favored
ability, to be able to
qiè to steal
to offer a reward
以下 yǐxià (from)…downward
bào to avenge
chóu enemy
wèi with, in company of
to refuse
but
road; opportunity
chéng if…really; sincerely
kāi to open
nuò to assent; yes
虎符 hǔ fú (a bīng fú in the shape of a tiger)
duó to seize
què to force to retreat
五霸 Wǔ Bà the Five Hegemons (Dukes Huan of Qi, Wen of Qin, etc.)
achievement; stroke
dào to steal
to give ( = 予)

 

8. 公子行,侯生曰:“將在外,主令有所不受,以便國家。公子即合符,而晉鄙不授公子兵而復請之,事必危 矣。臣客屠者朱亥可與俱,此人力士。晉鄙聽,大善;不聽,可使擊之。” 於是公子泣。侯生曰:“公子畏死邪?何泣也?” 公子曰:“晉鄙嚄唶宿將,往恐不聽, 必當殺之,是以泣耳,豈畏死哉?” 於是公子請朱亥。朱亥笑曰:“臣乃市井鼓刀屠者,而公子親數存之,所以不報謝者,以為小禮無所用。今公子有急,此乃臣效 命之秋也。” 遂與公子俱。公子過謝侯生。侯生曰:“臣宜從,老不能。請數公子行日,以至晉鄙軍之日,北鄉自剄,以送公子。” 公子遂行。

8. 公子行,侯生曰:“将在外,主令有所不受,以便国家。公子即合符,而晋鄙不授公子兵而复请之,事必危 矣。臣客屠者朱亥可与俱,此人力士。晋鄙听,大善;不听,可使击之。”  于是公子泣。侯生曰:“公子畏死邪?何泣也?”  公子曰:“晋鄙嚄唶宿将,往恐不听, 必当杀之,是以泣耳,岂畏死哉?”  于是公子请朱亥。朱亥笑曰:“臣乃市井鼓刀屠者,而公子亲数存之,所以不报谢者,以为小礼无所用。今公子有急,此乃臣效 命之秋也。”  遂与公子俱。公子过谢侯生。侯生曰:“臣宜从,老不能。请数公子行日,以至晋鄙军之日,北向自刭,以送公子。”  公子遂行。

(77.8)

wài away from the capital; in the field
主令 zhǔ lìng the ruler’s orders
便 biàn to benefit
國家 guó jiā state
if
to fit together; to match
力士 lì shì man of great strength
to go together
嚄唶 huò zè fiery; impressive
宿將 sù jiàng veteran commander
dāng must
是以 shì yǐ for this reason
nǎi (alt. form of  乃)
市井 shì jǐng marketplace
to beat; to wield
dāo knife
鼓刀 gǔ dāo to slaughter (animals)
cún to visit
效命 xiào mìng to risk one’s life
qiū autumn; time
shǔ to count
on, at (a time)
xiàng to face (alt. form of 向, 嚮)
jǐng to cut one’s throat
sòng to thank; to see off

 

9. 至鄴,矯魏王令代晉鄙。晉鄙合符,疑之,舉手視公子曰:“今吾擁十萬之衆,屯於境上,國之重任,今單 車來代之,何如哉?” 欲無聽。朱亥袖四十斤鐵椎,椎殺晉鄙,公子遂將晉鄙軍。勒兵下令軍中曰:“父子俱在軍中,父歸;兄弟俱在軍中,兄歸;獨子無兄弟,歸 養。” 得選兵八萬人,進兵擊秦軍。秦軍解去,遂救邯鄲,存趙。趙王及平原君自迎公子於界,平原君負韊矢為公子先引。趙王再拜曰:“自古賢人未有及公子者 也。” 當此之時,平原君不敢自比於人。公子與侯生決,至軍,侯生果北鄉自剄。

9. 至邺,矫魏王令代晋鄙。晋鄙合符,疑之,举手视公子曰:“今吾拥十万之众,屯于境上,国之重任,今单 车来代之,何如哉?”  欲无听。朱亥袖四十斤铁椎,椎杀晋鄙,公子遂将晋鄙军。勒兵下令军中曰:“父子俱在军中,父归;兄弟俱在军中,兄归;独子无兄弟,归养。”  得选兵八万人,进兵击秦军。秦军解去,遂救邯郸,存赵。赵王及平原君自迎公子于界,平原君负韊矢为公子先引。赵王再拜曰:“自古贤人未有及公子者 也。”  当此之时,平原君不敢自比于人。公子与侯生决,至军,侯生果北乡自刭。

(77.9)

jiǎo to forge, fake
dài to take the place of
to be suspicious of
to raise
yōng to possess
tún camp
zhòng important
rèn responsibility
dān single
何如 hé rú what about…?  what’s going on?
not
xiù sleeve; to hide in sleeve
jīn catty
tiě iron
chuí truncheon
to take command of
下令 xià ling to issue order
son
only [adj.]
yǎng to look after
xuǎn to select; selected
jiě to raise (siege)
cún to preserve
to carry on the back
lán quiver (of arrows)
old; antiquity
to reach, to match
to compare
jué to part

 

10. 魏王怒公子之盜其兵符,矯殺晉鄙,公子亦自知也。已卻秦存趙,使將將其軍歸魏,而公子獨與客留趙。趙 孝成王德公子之矯奪晉鄙兵而存趙,乃與平原君計,以五城封公子。公子聞之,意驕矜而有自功之色。客有說公子曰:“物有不可忘,或有不可不忘。夫人有德於公 子,公子不可忘也;公子有德於人,願公子忘之也。且矯魏王令,奪晉鄙兵以救趙,於趙則有功矣,於魏則未為忠臣也。公子乃自驕而功之,竊為公子不取也。” 於 是公子立自責,似若無所容者。趙王埽除自迎,執主人之禮,引公子就西階。公子側行辭讓,從東階上。自言罪過,以負於魏,無功於趙。趙王侍酒至暮,口不忍獻 五城,以公子退讓也。公子竟留趙。趙王以鄗為公子湯沐邑,魏亦復以信陵奉公子。公子留趙。

10. 魏王怒公子之盗其兵符,矫杀晋鄙,公子亦自知也。已却秦存赵,使将将其军归魏,而公子独与客留赵。赵 孝成王德公子之矫夺晋鄙兵而存赵,乃与平原君计,以五城封公子。公子闻之,意骄矜而有自功之色。客有说公子曰:“物有不可忘,或有不可不忘。夫人有德于公 子,公子不可忘也;公子有德于人,愿公子忘之也。且矫魏王令,夺晋鄙兵以救赵,于赵则有功矣,于魏则未为忠臣也。公子乃自骄而功之,窃为公子不取也。” 于 是公子立自责,似若无所容者。赵王埽除自迎,执主人之礼,引公子就西阶。公子侧行辞让,从东阶上。自言罪过,以负于魏,无功于赵。赵王侍酒至暮,口不忍献 五城,以公子退让也。公子竟留赵。赵王以鄗为公子汤沐邑,魏亦复以信陵奉公子。公子留赵。

(77.10)

孝成王 Xiào Chéng Wáng King Xiao Cheng
to be grateful for; virtue; moral power
chéng walled town
thoughts
jīn proud
gōng to consider meritorious
thing, matter
wàng to forget
huò some; others; in some cases
kindness
to accept, to concur in opinion
to criticize
to seem
róng to contain; to hide
sǎo to sweep (alt. form of sǎo 掃)
chú to get rid of
埽除 sǎo chú to sweep the roads (in welcome)
zhí to carry out
zhǔ ruler; host
主人 zhǔ rén host
jiē steps
inclined
側行 cè xìng to walk bent over (humbly)
辭讓 cí ràng to demur
zuì (alt. form of    罪)
guò offense, sin
shì to accompany, to attend to
退 tuì to withdraw, to decline
jìng finally
Hào (a place in Zhao)
湯沐邑 tāng mù yì temporary fief (originally for ritual fasting and purification)
fèng to offer
liú to stay

 

11. 公子聞趙有處士毛公藏於博徒,薛公藏於賣漿家,公子欲見兩人,兩人自匿不肯見公子。公子聞所在,乃閒 步往從此兩人游,甚歡。平原君聞之,謂其夫人曰:“始吾聞夫人弟公子天下無雙,今吾聞之,乃妄從博徒賣漿者游,公子妄人耳。” 夫人以告公子。公子乃謝夫人 去,曰:“始吾聞平原君賢,故負魏王而救趙,以稱平原君。平原君之游,徒豪舉耳,不求士也。無忌自在大梁時,常聞此兩人賢,至趙,恐不得見。以無忌從之 游,尚恐其不我欲也,今平原君乃以為羞,其不足從游。” 乃裝為去。夫人具以語平原君。平原君乃免冠謝,固留公子。平原君門下聞之,半去平原君歸公子,天下士復往歸公子,公子傾平原君客。

11. 公子闻赵有处士毛公藏于博徒,薛公藏于卖浆家,公子欲见两人,两人自匿不肯见公子。公子闻所在,乃间步往从此两人游,甚欢。平原君闻之,谓其夫人曰:“始吾闻夫人弟公子天下无双,今吾闻之,乃妄从博徒卖浆者游,公子妄人耳。” 夫人以告公子。公子乃谢夫人 去,曰:“始吾闻平原君贤,故负魏王而救赵,以称平原君。平原君之游,徒豪举耳,不求士也。无忌自在大梁时,常闻此两人贤,至赵,恐不得见。以无忌从之 游,尚恐其不我欲也,今平原君乃以为羞,其不足从游。”  乃装为去。夫人具以语平原君。平原君乃免冠谢,固留公子。平原君门下闻之,半去平原君归公子,天下士复往归公子,公子倾平原君客。

(77.11)

處士 chǔ shì a shi out of office, in retirement, recluse
Máo (a surname)
gōng Master
cáng to hide
博徒 bó tú gambler
Xuē (a surname)
mài to sell
賣漿家 mài jiāng jiā wine seller
to walk
nǎi actually
cóng in company with
yóu to associate
huān joyful
wàng wild, reckless
chèn to satisfy, to please
háo (heroic)
豪舉 háo jǔ grand or heroic act; grand display
from the time that
xiū shameful
[modal particle]
worthy of
zhuāng to pack up
wéi to prepare
miǎn to take off
liú to press (someone) to stay; to retain
門下 mén xià retainers; door-keeper
qīng to surpass; to exhaust

 

12. 公子留趙十年不歸。秦聞公子在趙,日夜出兵東伐魏。魏王患之,使使往請公子。公子恐其怒之,乃誡門 下:“有敢為魏王使通者,死。” 賓客皆背魏之趙,莫敢勸公子歸。毛公、薛公兩人往見公子曰:“公子所以重於趙,名聞諸侯者,徒以有魏也。今秦攻魏,魏急而 公子不恤,使秦破大梁而夷先王之宗廟,公子當何面目立天下乎?” 語未及卒,公子立變色,告車趣駕歸救魏。

12. 公子留赵十年不归。秦闻公子在赵,日夜出兵东伐魏。魏王患之,使使往请公子。公子恐其怒之,乃诫门 下:“有敢为魏王使通者,死。” 宾客皆背魏之赵,莫敢劝公子归。毛公、薛公两人往见公子曰:“公子所以重于赵,名闻诸侯者,徒以有魏也。今秦攻魏,魏急而 公子不恤,使秦破大梁而夷先王之宗庙,公子当何面目立天下乎?”  语未及卒,公子立变色,告车趣驾归救魏。

(77.12)

jiè to warn
tōng to transmit a message
bèi to turn back on
quàn to urge
zhòng respected; heavy
state of crisis
to care
使 shǐ to allow; if
to level, to raze
先王 xiān wáng the former kings
宗廟 zōng miào ancestral temple
面目 miàn mù face
to exist
speech
to finish
gào to ask for
carriage (men)
to urge
jià to harness up

 

13. 魏王見公子,相與泣,而以上將軍印授公子,公子遂將。魏安釐王三十年,公子使使遍告諸侯。諸侯聞公子 將,各遣將將兵救魏。公子率五國之兵破秦軍於河外,走蒙驁。遂乘勝逐秦軍至函谷關,抑秦兵,秦兵不敢出。當是時,公子威振天下,諸侯之客進兵法,公子皆名 之,故世俗稱《魏公子兵法》。

13. 魏王见公子,相与泣,而以上将军印授公子,公子遂将。魏安厘王三十年,公子使使遍告诸侯。诸侯闻公子 将,各遣将将兵救魏。公子率五国之兵破秦军于河外,走蒙骜。遂乘胜逐秦军至函谷关,抑秦兵,秦兵不敢出。当是时,公子威振天下,诸侯之客进兵法,公子皆名 之,故世俗称《魏公子兵法》。

(77.13)

上將軍 shàng jiāng jūn commander in chief
yìn seal
biàn everywhere
each
shuài to lead
the Yellow River
上將軍 shàng jiāng jūn commander in chief
yìn seal
biàn everywhere
each
shuài to lead
the Yellow River
河外 Hé Wài (area south of the Yellow River of that time)
蒙驁 Méng Áo (the Qin’s commander)
chéng to take advantage of (c.f. shèng)
to pin down
zhèn to shake
jìn to offer
strategy, plan
míng to name
custom; vulgar
世俗 shì sú the ordinary people
chēng to name

 

14. 秦王患之,乃行金萬斤於魏,求晉鄙客,令毀公子於魏王曰:“公子亡在外十年矣,今為魏將,諸侯將皆屬,諸侯徒聞魏公子,不聞魏王。公子亦欲因此時定南面而王,諸侯畏公子之威,方欲共立之。” 秦數使反閒,偽賀公子得立為魏王未也。魏王日聞其毀,不能不 信,後果使人代公子將。公子自知再以毀廢,乃謝病不朝,與賓客為長夜飲,飲醇酒,多近婦女。日夜為樂飲者四歲,竟病酒而卒。其歲,魏安釐王亦薨。

14. 秦王患之,乃行金万斤于魏,求晋鄙客,令毁公子于魏王曰:“公子亡在外十年矣,今为魏将,诸侯将皆属,诸侯徒闻魏公子,不闻魏王。公子亦欲因此时定南面而王,诸侯畏公子之威,方欲共立之。”  秦数使反间,伪贺公子得立为魏王未也。魏王日闻其毁,不能不 信,后果使人代公子将。公子自知再以毁废,乃谢病不朝,与宾客为长夜饮,饮醇酒,多近妇女。日夜为乐饮者四岁,竟病酒而卒。其岁,魏安厘王亦薨。

(77.14)

xíng to issue, to circulate
huǐ slander
shǔ to give allegiance to (cf. zhǔ)
因此時 yīn cǐ shí to take this opportunity
nán south
wàng to rule as king (cf. wáng: king)
南面而王 nán miàn ér wàng to be king (to face south and rule as king)
dìng definitely
fāng on the point of
反閒 fǎn jiàn agitator, instigator
wěi false
to congratulate
未也 wèi yě (take as  否耶)
fǒu or not (in questions)
fèi to depose
謝病 xiè bìng to excuse oneself on account of illness
cháo to go to court
cháng long
長夜 cháng yè nightlong
chún strong (of wine)
jìn to be intimate with
pleasure, merriment
病酒 bìng jiǔ to get ill from drinking
to die

 

15. 秦聞公子死,使蒙驁攻魏,拔二十城,初置東郡。其後秦稍蠶食魏,十八歲而虜魏王,屠大梁。

15. 秦闻公子死,使蒙骜攻魏,拔二十城,初置东郡。其后秦稍蚕食魏,十八岁而虏魏王,屠大梁。

(77.15)

chū at first, for the first time
zhì to set up
東郡 Dōng Jùn Eastern Commandery
shāo little by little, gradually
cán silkworm
蠶食 cán shí to nibble away at
to capture, to take prisoner
to put to the sword

 

16. 高祖始微少時,數聞公子賢。及即天子位,每過大梁,常祠公子。高祖十二年,從擊黥布還,為公子置守冢五家,世世歲以四時奉祠公子。

16. 高祖始微少时,数闻公子贤。及即天子位,每过大梁,常祠公子。高祖十二年,从击黥布还,为公子置守冢五家,世世岁以四时奉祠公子。

(77.16)

shǐ at first
微少 wéi shào poor, obscure
měi each time
to sacrifice; shrine
黥布 Qíng Bù (i.e. Yīng 英布, see Shiji 91.  Qíng: branded)
shì generation
世世 shì shì every generation
四時 sì shí four seasons
zhǒng tomb

 

17. 太史公曰:吾過大梁之墟,求問其所謂夷門。夷門者,城之東門也。天下諸公子亦有喜士者矣,然信陵君之 接巖穴隱者,不恥下交,有以也。名冠諸侯,不虛耳。高祖每過之而令民奉祠不絕也。

17. 太史公曰:吾过大梁之墟,求问其所谓夷门。夷门者,城之东门也。天下诸公子亦有喜士者矣,然信陵君之 接岩穴隐者,不耻下交,有以也。名冠诸侯,不虚耳。高祖每过之而令民奉祠不绝也。

(77.17)

太史公 Tài Shǐ Gōng The Grand Historian (i.e. Sima Qian)
ruins
jiē to befriend
yán mountain,  rock
嚴穴 yán xuè mountain cave
chǐ to be ashamed
reason, principle, grounds
guān to surpass, to excel
empty, vain
mín the people
jué to stop

 

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Introduction to Classical Chinese by Patrick Hanan; David Lattimore; Judith Zeitlin; Margaret Baptist Wan; Anthony George; Xiaofei Tian; Regina Llamas; Hu Hsiao-chen; Liu Lening; Paul Rouzer; Shang Wei; Andrew Schonebaum; and Kong Mei is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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