References and Further Reading


Audi, Robert. 1983. “The Applications of Conceptual Analysis.” Metaphilosophy 14: 87-105.

Bealer, George. 1996. “A Priori Knowledge and the Scope of Philosophy.” Philosophical Studies 81: 121-42.

Braddon-Mitchell, David and Robert Nola. 2009. Conceptual Analysis and Philosophical Naturalism. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

Copi, Irving, Carl Cohen and Daniel Flage. 2007. Essentials of Logic. 2nd ed. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson Prentice-Hall.

Copi, Irving, Carl Cohen and Kenneth McMahon. 2014. Introduction to Logic. 14th ed. Pearson Education Limited.

Fisher, Alec. 2001. Critical Thinking. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Hempel, Carl. 1952. Fundamentals of Concept Formation in Empirical Science. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Jackson, Frank. 1998. From Metaphysics to Ethics: A Defense of Conceptual Analysis. New York: Oxford University Press.

Kahane, Howard and Paul Tidman. 2002. Logic and Philosophy: A Modern Introduction. 9th ed. Wadsworth Cengage Learning.

Lakoff, George. 1987. Women, Fire, and Dangerous Things. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.

Lemmon, Edward John. 1971. Beginning Logic. Chapman and Hall.

MacFarlane, John. 2000. What Does it Mean to Say that Logic is Formal? PhD thesis. University of Pittsburgh.

Manwarring, Max G. and Court Prisk, eds. 1988. El Salvador at War: An Oral History of the Conflict from the 1979 Insurrection to the Present. Washington, D.C.: National Defense University Press.

McGinn, Colin. 2012. Truth by Analysis. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Moore, G. E. 1968. “A Reply to my Critics, §11: Analysis.” In The Philosophy of G. E. Moore, ed. Paul Schilpp, 660-667. 3rd ed. La Salle, IL: Open Court.

Oliver, Alex. 2010. “The Matter of Form: Logic’s Beginnings.” In The Force of Argument: Essays in Honor of Timothy Smiley, eds. Timothy J. Smiley, John Lear, and Alex Oliver, 165-185. New York: Routledge.

Ramsey, William. 1998. “Prototypes and Conceptual Analysis.” In Rethinking Intuition, eds. Michael Depaul and William Ramsey, 161-78. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

Rosch, Eleanor and Carolyn Mervis. 1998. “Family Resemblances: Studies in Internal Structure of Categories.” In Rethinking Intuition, eds. Michael Depaul and William Ramsey, 17-44. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

Shaffer, Michael. Forthcoming. The Experimental Turn and the Methods of Philosophy. Routledge.

Shaffer, Michael. 2015. “The Problem of Necessary and Sufficient Conditions and Conceptual Analysis.” Metaphilosophy 46: 555-63.

Smiley, Timothy. 1982. “The Schematic Fallacy.” Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 83: 1-17.

Smith, Nicholas J. J. 2012. Logic: The Laws of Truth. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

Strawson, Peter Frederick. 1952. An Introduction to Logical Theory. London: Methuen.

Velasco, P. Del Nero. 2010. Educando para a Argumentação. Belo Horizonte, Brazil: Autêntica Editora.

Walton, Douglas. 1995. A Pragmatic Theory of Fallacy. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press.

Wittgenstein, Ludwig. 1953. Philosophical Investigations, trans. G. E. M. Anscombe. Oxford: MacMillan.

Wittgenstein, Ludwig. 1958. The Blue and Brown Books. New York: Harper.

further reading

General Introductions to Logic

Bowell, Tracey and Gary Kemp. 2002. Critical Thinking: A Concise Guide. New York/Oxford: Routledge.

Groarke, Leo. 2017. “Informal Logic.” In The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, ed. Edward N. Zalta.

Priest, Graham. 2017. Logic: A Very Short Introduction. 2nd ed. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Sinnott-Armstrong, Walton and Robert Fogelin. 2015. Understanding Arguments: An Introduction to Informal Logic. 9th ed. Stamford, CT: Cengage Learning.

Thomson, Anne. 2008. Critical Reasoning: A Practical Introduction. London/New York: Routledge.

Types of Arguments

Douven, Igor. 2017. “Abduction.” In The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, ed. Edward N. Zalta.

Russel, Bertrand. 2001. “On Induction.” In The Problems of Philosophy. Oxford University Press.

Vickers, John. 2016. “The Problem of Induction.” In The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, ed. Edward N. Zalta.

Formal Logic and Logical Form

Pietroski, Paul. 2016. “Logical Form.” In The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, ed. Edward N. Zalta.

Sainsbury, Mark. 2001. Logical Forms: An Introduction to Philosophical Logic. 2nd ed. Oxford: Blackwell.


Walton, Douglas. 1995. A Pragmatic Theory of Fallacy. Tuscaloosa, AL: The University of Alabama Press.

Walton, Douglas. 2008. Informal Logic: A Pragmatic Approach. 2nd ed. Cambridge/New York: Cambridge University Press.

Necessary and Sufficient Conditions

Bealer, George. 1998. “Intuition and the Autonomy of Philosophy.” In Rethinking Intuition, eds. Michael Depaul and William Ramsey, 201-240. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.

Brennan, Andrew. 2017. “Necessary and Sufficient Conditions.” In The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy, ed. Edward N. Zalta.

Fodor, Jerry. 1998. Concepts. Oxford: Oxford University Press.


Icon for the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License

Introduction to Philosophy: Logic by Bahram Assadian, Matthew Knachel, Cassiano Terra Rodrigues, Michael Shaffer, Nathan Smith, Benjamin Martin (Book Editor), and Christina Hendricks (Series Editor) is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

Share This Book