About the Contributors


Ben Martin (book editor) is a Marie Skłodowska-Curie fellow at the University of Bergen, and the investigator for the European Research Council-funded project The Unknown Science: Understanding the Epistemology of Logic through Practice, having received his PhD from University College London. He works mainly in the philosophy of logic and epistemology, and has published articles about logical disagreements, the semantic paradoxes and dialetheism in journals including Australasian Journal of PhilosophySynthese and Topoi, as well as collections such as the Routledge Handbook of Philosophy of Evidence.

Christina Hendricks (series editor) is a Professor of Teaching in Philosophy  at the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, BC, Canada, where she often teaches Introduction to Philosophy courses. She is also the and also the Academic Director of the Centre for Teaching, Learning and Technology (2018-2023). Christina has been an open education researcher and advocate for a number of years, having been a BCcampus Open Textbook Fellow, an OER Research Fellow with the Open Education Group, the Creative Commons Canada representative to the CC Global Network, and a member of the Board of Directors for the Canadian Legal Information Institute.

chapter authors

Bahram Assadian received his PhD from Birkbeck College, University of London. He was a visiting research fellow at the Munich Centre for Mathematical Philosophy and the School of Philosophy, Religion and History of Science at the University of Leeds. Most of his research lies at the intersection between the philosophy of mathematics and the philosophy of language. He has published articles in journals such as Philosophical Studies, Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, and Philosophia Mathematica.

Matthew Knachel is Senior Lecturer in Philosophy at the University of Wisconsin – Milwaukee. He is the author of the open logic textbook Fundamental Methods of Logic. He received his PhD from the University of Pittsburgh.

Ben Martin (see above)

Michael J. Shaffer is currently Professor of Philosophy at St. Cloud State University. He is also a fellow of the Center for Formal Epistemology at Carnegie-Mellon University, a fellow of the Rotman Institute for Science and Values at the University of Western Ontario, a Lakatos fellow at the London School of Economics, a fellow of the University of Cologne’s Summer Institute for Epistemology and an NEH fellow at the University of Utah. His main areas of research interest are in epistemology, logic and the philosophy of science, and he has published more than fifty articles and book chapters on various topics in these areas. He is co-editor of What Place for the A Priori? (Open Court, 2011) and is the author of Counterfactuals and Scientific Realism (Palgrave-MacMillan, 2012), Quasi-factive Belief and Knowledge-like States (Lexington, forthcoming) and The Experimental Turn and the Methods of Philosophy (Routledge, forthcoming).

Nathan Smith is an Instructor of Philosophy at Houston Community College (HCC). He received his PhD in philosophy from Boston College and the Université de Paris IV – Sorbonne. He is currently serving as the OER Coordinator and manager of HCC’s Z-Degree. His dissertation was on the origins of Descartes’s concept of mind in the Rules for the Direction of the Mind. He is an OER research fellow and currently does work in renaissance and early modern philosophy and open education.

Cassiano Terra Rodrigues gained his PhD from the Pontifical University of São Paulo, and currently teaches at the Aeronautics Institute of Technology, São José dos Campos, Brazil. His main research concerns Charles S. Peirce’s philosophy, in dialogue with other thinkers, such as Kant and Wittgenstein. More details of Rodrigues’ work.

peer reviewers

Berta Grimau is currently a postdoctoral researcher at the Institute of Information Theory and Automation of the Czech Academy of Sciences in Prague. Before that, Berta obtained her PhD in philosophy at Glasgow and her MA in logic and philosophy of science from the Munich Center for Mathematical Philosophy. Berta’s research is mainly in the philosophy of logic, the philosophy of language and formal semantics. In particular, she has worked on the semantics of plurals and their potential as tools with which to carry out certain philosophical endeavours. Currently, she is working on using fuzzy logics to develop semantics for graded predicates.

Daniel Massey completed his PhD in philosophy at the University of Connecticut in 2011 and has since taught at Connecticut College, Arkansas State University, and Spring Hill College. He is currently Associate Professor of Philosophy at Spring Hill College where he teaches courses on logic, ethics, metaphysics, epistemology, and the philosophical traditions of China and India.

other contributors

Colleen Cressman (copy editor) is a librarian who works on open-access initiatives out of the Office for Scholarly Communication at Harvard Library. She is interested especially in doing her small part to increase the free and open availability of academic philosophy to students, scholars, and enthusiasts.

Jonathan Lashley (cover designer) worked in the visual design industry before pursuing his career in education full-time. When he isn’t supporting open, online, and technology-enhanced learning at public institutions across the United States, he enjoys lending his creative skills to projects like this one.

Heather Salazar (cover artwork) is an artist and professor of philosophy. She specializes in figurative charcoals and monotypes, as well as vivid oil paintings of landscapes and objects of meditation. Salazar’s art is deeply impacted by her philosophical research in metaethics, philosophy of mind and East-West comparative philosophy. Her art graces the covers of philosophy books such as The Philosophy of Spirituality (Brill 2018), Introduction to Philosophy: Philosophy of Mind (Rebus 2019) and Introduction to Philosophy: Ethics (Rebus 2019).

We would also like to acknowledge the many philosophy students, faculty, and researchers who have contributed to the project by providing comments along the way, such as discussions on the Rebus Community platform when we were originally envisioning the series and what topics should be included, as well as giving feedback on drafts of chapter outlines for books. There have been many very helpful contributions from too many people to list here, and the books would not have come together without them.


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Introduction to Philosophy: Logic Copyright © 2020 by Bahram Assadian; Matthew Knachel; Cassiano Terra Rodrigues; Michael Shaffer; Nathan Smith; Benjamin Martin (Book Editor); and Christina Hendricks (Series Editor) is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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