About the Contributors


Brian C. Barnett (book editor) is Lecturer in Philosophy at St. John Fisher College and the State University of New York at Geneseo. A first-generation college student and McNair Scholar, he obtained a BS in Mathematics and BA in Philosophy (summa cum laude) with a minor in Religious Studies from the University of Oklahoma, and an MA and a PhD in Philosophy from the University of Rochester. His primary teaching and research interests include epistemology, logic, philosophy of religion, Eastern philosophy, and philosophy of nonviolence. Currently he serves on faculty senate and is editor of the Peace & Nonviolence category on PhilPapers.org. Outside of academia, he enjoys waterfall hiking, nature photography, and all things music.

Christina Hendricks (series editor) is Professor of Teaching in Philosophy at the University of British Columbia in Vancouver, BC, Canada, where she often teaches Introduction to Philosophy courses. She is also the Academic Director of the Centre for Teaching, Learning and Technology (2018–2023). Christina has been an open education researcher and advocate for a number of years, having been a BCcampus Open Textbook Fellow, an OER Research Fellow with the Open Education Group, the Creative Commons Canada representative to the CC Global Network, and a member of the Board of Directors for the Canadian Legal Information Institute.

Chapter Authors

Guy Axtell is Professor of Philosophy, and Faculty Fellow in the Honors College, at Radford University, Virginia. He works primarily in social epistemology, and philosophy of the sciences. His Knowledge, Belief, and Character (Rowman & Littlefield, 2000) was the first edited collection in the area of virtue/vice epistemology. He has since edited another collection, Epistemic Paternalism: Conceptions, Justification, and Implications (Rowman & Littlefield, 2020), along with numerous articles and two monographs, Objectivity (Key Concepts in Philosophy series, Polity, 2015) and Problems of Religious Luck: Assessing the Limits of Reasonable Religious Disagreement (Lexington Books, 2019).

Brian C. Barnett (see above, under Editors)

Todd R. Long is Professor in the Philosophy Department at California Polytechnic State University. Long works in mainstream epistemology, moral responsibility, and epistemology of religious belief; his essays have appeared in journals such as Philosophical Studies and Religious Studies, and in collections from Oxford University Press and MIT Press, among others. He has worked as Visiting Associate Professor in Philosophy at the University of Rochester and as a Postdoctoral Fellow at Notre Dame’s Center for Philosophy of Religion, and he has taught at Cal Poly, Notre Dame, Rochester, University of Arkansas, and William Carey College. Long also participates in the performing arts as an actor, rock and roll musician, and film director (toddlong.net).

Jonathan Lopez completed his MA in Philosophy at the University of British Columbia in 2016. His research interests are primarily in social epistemology, specifically, on issues such as expertise and epistemic injustice.

Daniel Massey is Associate Professor of Philosophy at Spring Hill College in Mobile, Alabama. He teaches courses in logic, ethics, metaphysics, epistemology, and the philosophical traditions of China and India.

Monica C. Poole is Professor of Philosophy and Religious Studies at Bunker Hill Community College in Boston, Massachusetts. Poole’s formal education has included doctoral work at Harvard University and undergraduate work at Edison Community College. Recent publications include “Credibility: Resisting Doubts, Reimagining Knowledge,” in Philosophy for Girls: An Invitation to the Life of Thought (eds. Garchar and Shew, Oxford, 2020), and “Family Resemblance: Reading Post-Crucifixion Encounters as Community Responses to Sexual Violence,” in When Did We See You Naked?: Jesus as a Victim of Sexual Abuse (eds. Reaves, Tombs, and Figueroa, SCM Press, 2021).

William David Rowley received his PhD from the University of Rochester. His areas of academic interest and research include epistemology, early modern philosophy, and philosophy of religion. He lives in New Haven, Connecticut.

K. S. Sangeetha was Assistant professor in Philosophy at Lady Shri Ram College, University of Delhi, India. She now lives in England with her husband. Her areas of academic interest include modern Western philosophy, philosophy of language, and epistemology. Her current research is in the philosophy of mind and metaphysics of science. Her latest publication is “Bertrand Russell & Modern Structural Realism” in Logique et Analyse, 2020.

peer reviewers

Kele Douglas Keli’imakekauonu’uanuokona Perkins teaches Speech & Debate (including Academic Decathlon), AP Psychology, and AP US Government/Macroeconomics at Whittier High School (California), where he has worked since 1999. He earned his BA in Psychology at Whittier College, teaching credential at Cal State Fullerton, and MA in Philosophy at Long Beach State. In 2001, his paper on epistemic closure won second prize in the William H. Alamshah Memorial Prize competition. He has taught Critical Thinking at Long Beach City College and presented on justification transmission in the Southern California Epistemology Network at UC Irvine. His other interests include chess (Kele’s profile with the International Correspondence Chess Federation; news story about his students) and music (single by Kele Perkins and Ryan Culton).

Noah Valdez is a doctoral student in Comparative Literature at Cornell University, where he studies nineteenth- and twentieth-century French literature, German romanticism, literary theory, and twenty-first-century American literature. He received his BA in Philosophy from Boston College, and wrote his senior thesis on Mandelbrot sets and the Kantian sublime. In his spare time, he enjoys cooking, reading, and making Turkish coffee.

Other contributors

Leanne N. Page (copyeditor) is an academic copyeditor and independent researcher. Her scholarly interests center on Victorian literature and culture, but they’ve edited everything from introductory music theory to media history to creative writing.

Apurva Ashok (formatting in Pressbooks) leads Open Education initiatives at The Rebus Foundation, a global non-profit working to make knowledge freely available in the pursuit of equity, understanding, and the common good. Her work at the Rebus Community empowers educators with the know-how and network to publish and adopt open educational resources through an innovative community of practice. Apurva’s experience traverses design, media, publishing, education, and social justice. She strongly believes in translating knowledge among communities and regions, and in the value of greater critical thinking for all.

Jonathan Lashley (cover designer) worked in the visual design industry before pursuing his career in education full-time. When he isn’t supporting open, online, and technology-enhanced learning at public institutions across the United States, he enjoys lending his creative skills to projects like this one.

Heather Salazar (cover artwork) is an artist and professor of philosophy. She specializes in figurative charcoals and monotypes, as well as vivid oil paintings of landscapes and objects of meditation. Salazar’s art is deeply impacted by her philosophical research in metaethics, philosophy of mind, and East-West comparative philosophy. Her art graces the covers of philosophy books such as The Philosophy of Spirituality (Brill, 2018) and Introduction to Philosophy: Philosophy of Mind (Rebus, 2019).

We would also like to acknowledge the many philosophy students, faculty, and researchers who have contributed to the project by providing comments along the way, such as discussions on the Rebus Community platform when we were originally envisioning the series and what topics should be included, as well as giving feedback on drafts of chapter outlines for books. There have been many very helpful contributions from too many people to list here, and the books would not have come together without them.


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Introduction to Philosophy: Epistemology Copyright © 2021 by Guy Axtell; Brian C. Barnett; Todd R. Long; Jonathan Lopez; Daniel Massey; Monica C. Poole; William D. Rowley; K. S. Sangeetha; Brian C. Barnett (Book Editor); and Christina Hendricks (Series Editor) is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, except where otherwise noted.

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